Eye errors & diseases
It is usually caused by the patient’s eye being longer than it should be. As a result, the image of distant objects falls in front of the retina and their image is blurred on the retina. It is less often caused by eye diseases that increase the refractive power of the lens and cornea (eg cataracts, diabetes, keratoconus). A short-sighted person sees sharply close objects and perceives distant objects blurred. The degree of myopia is expressed in negative dioptres. Light (up to -3.0 dioptres), medium (-3.25 to -6.0 dioptres) and severe (above -6.0 dioptres). Myopia is one of the most common eye defects, occurring in up to 30% of the population. It is a genetically conditioned error. It usually begins in childhood or adolescence, deteriorates during the growth period, stabilizes after the end of growth between 20. and 25. year of life. Eyeglasses and contact lenses correct the defect, thus focusing the image on the retina. Ultimately, however, dioptres can only be removed surgically by laser abrading the cornea of the eye (up to the age of 35-40). At a later age, when near-focus problems naturally arise, myopia is resolved by replacing the intraocular lens with an artificial multifocal lens (Prelex).
Is most commonly caused by the patient’s eye being longer than it should be. This causes the picture of distant objects to fall in front of the retina, thus the picture is blurred. Less commonly is this problem caused by illnesses, which increase the refraction of lens and cornea (cataract, diabetes, keratoconus). Nearsighted people see objects in their immediate vicinity clearly, distant objects are blurred. For those whose eye growth lags, the eye remains far-sighted. This defect is genetically conditioned. A farsighted person sees sharper, more distant objects than those close to him. About 30% of the population suffers from this defect. In childhood and youth, slight degrees of hyperopia (up to +3.0 diopters) have no manifestations, because the eye can produce the missing plus diopters by the operation of the accommodation apparatus itself. Gradually, however, near vision deteriorates and the first signs appear around the age of 40, when farsightedness begins to be associated with the first symptoms of presbyopia (old vision) for the gradual loss of accommodation (focusing) at close range. Typical symptoms are a significant strain when looking closely associated with headache and eye pain. Higher levels of farsightedness (moderate +3.25 to +6.0 dioptres, severe above +6.0 dioptres) are already manifest in childhood and are often associated with twisting and blinding. Coupling lenses or contact lenses are used to correct farsightedness. For those to whom these correction aids do not comply, the operating methods of the solution are intended. Laser surgery is limited by the degree of defect (only up to +3.5 diopters), and does not solve the problem of focusing close to middle age around 40 years. In such patients, it is therefore preferable to correct the defect by replacing the intraocular lens with an artificial multifocal lens (Prelex operation).
It is not a dioptric defect in the true sense of the word, but a natural, physiological loss of the ability of the eye to accommodate (focus at close range). It affects people between 40. and 45. year, even those who have never needed glasses before. However, it occurs earlier in the case of the farsighted and later in the nearsighted. Presbyopia is manifested by blurred vision and the inability to focus close. Initially, you can compensate by moving the text and close objects away from the eyes by extending your hand. However, it gradually deteriorates with age and reaches a presbyopia maximum at about 60, when accommodation is completely lost, and its deterioration stops. The essence of presbyopia is the loss of the elasticity of the eye lens, and thus the loss of its ability to change shape when focusing at close range (accommodation). Elderly vision is corrected by wearing reading glasses and a computer whose diopters are gradually increasing. Presbyopia is also treated surgically, e.g. corneal implants that provide only a temporary effect, like the laser-shaped corneal profile for near and far vision (PresbyLasik). The most effective presbyopia solution is Prelex, which involves replacing an already malfunctioning lens of the eye with an artificial multifocal lens. This procedure is permanent and it is possible to remove both diopters into the distance, as well as close and forever get rid of glasses.
Presbyopia is not a real optic disease, rahter than natural physiological loss of the ability to focus on near objects. This issue affects people between 40th and 45th year of life, and also affects people, who never had to wear glasses. Presbyopia appears sooner for far-sighted people. At the beginning, this issue can be solved by increasing the distance between eye and text by extending arm. This causes a fuzzy vision of an image that has a shadow (of ghosts). It causes problems with the recognition of digits, the eye continues to blur, leading to eye fatigue and headaches. Astigmatism can also be obtained by eye diseases, injuries or eye surgery. Irregular curvature of the cornea can be corrected by glasses, contact lenses, but also operations. Depending on the age, magnitude of astigmatism and its combination with dioptric defect (myopia, hyperopia), a superficial laser surgery or intraocular surgery with implantation of a toric artificial intraocular lens may be performed.
It is an eye defect, which is manifested by reduced visual acuity of one eye, but in case of high dioptric defects of both eyes, however, the two-sided sightedness can be bilateral. In healthy eyes, images from both eyes are combined in the brain into one spatial visual perception. However, if one of the eyes has a dioptric defect or congenital cataract or squeal, it provides a poor image. The consequence is a reduction in vision of the affected eye, loss of cooperation of both eyes and thus loss of stereoscopic (spatial) vision. The manifestations of myopia can be frequent tilting of the head to one side, blinking of eyes and closing of one eye. However, blindness may often not manifest itself at all because the child sees the eye normally. Therefore prevention is important. If a family has a high dioptre defect, twitching, and myopia, parents should have their child examined, preferably 4. – 5th year of life. The emergence of blunt-sightedness of the affected eye is possible only in childhood, when visual functions are formed. If the error is detected early and treatment is initiated, it may be possible to partially or completely eliminate myopia. Usually after 7. – by the eighth year of life, the development of visual functions is complete and, if blindness has not yet been revealed, the condition remains permanent and practically unaffected by treatment. Therapy of amblyopia is therefore important until about 6. year of the child’s life and depends on the underlying cause. If it is a dioptric defect (the most common cause), correct diopters are prescribed, if the cause is cataracts, surgery is required. In the treatment of myopia, we try to ensure that the brain no longer favors a healthy eye and begins to perceive the image of the affected eye. This is done by temporarily pasting a healthy eye (occluder application) and engaging the eye affected in the vision process by using various games aimed at developing visual functions – the so-called “ocular” function. 67/5000 pleoptical treatment (drawing, joining points, distinguishing colors). The treatment of myopia is long-term and requires a great deal of patience.
Dry eye syndrome
There is a condition where not enough tears are produced and / or their quality is deteriorated (incorrect ratio of mucus, water and fat component of tears). By insufficiently moistening the surface of the eye (cornea and conjunctiva), unpleasant sensations such as cutting, burning, foreign body sensation in the eye, redness of the eyes, photophobia and impaired vision arise. On the surface of the eye, slight defects occur due to increased friction of eyelashes (eyelids) on the surface of the eye, which often leads to inflammation. Paradoxically, the eyes tear excessively for constant eye irritation, thereby reflexively stimulating tear formation. Dry eye syndrome occurs more frequently with increasing age (over 50 years), in menopausal women, or after eye surgery. However, environmental factors (dusty and smoking environments, staying in air-conditioned or overheated areas with dry air, long-term computing), general illnesses (autoimmune diseases), or drug use (antidepressants) also play a significant role in its development. Lighter forms of dry eye syndrome are treated with so-called. artificial tears, which are eye drops most often based on hyaluronic acid, which moisturize and protect the eye surface. Adjustment of environmental factors (stay in the open air), higher intake of fluids and omega-3 fatty acids, which improve tear quality, are also suitable. In heavier forms, eye gels are applied, or the lacrimal canals are surgically closed with special implants, preventing the tears from draining into the nose and leaving them more on the eye surface.
Is a condition where not enough tears are produced and/or their quality is impaired (incorrect ratio of mucus, or other tears components – water and fat). As the surface of the eye (cornea and conjunctiva) is insufficiently moistened, unpleasant feelings such as cutting, burning, feeling of foreign object in the eye, redness, photophobia, and impaired vision occur. Small defects occur on the surface of the eye, due to the increased friction of eyelids around the surface of the eye, which often leads to inflammation. Eyes paradoxically excessively tear due to constant irritation, which reflectively stimulates tears formation. Dry eye syndrome occurs more often with increasing age (over 50 years), menopause, or after an eye surgery.
However, environmental factors (dusty and damp environments, air-conditioned or overheated dry air spaces, long-term computer work), general diseases (autoimmune diseases), or drug use (antidepressants) also play a significant role. Easier forms of dry eye syndrome are treated with so-called artificial tears, which are ocular drops most often based on hyaluronic acid, which moisturise and protect the surface of the eye. It is also appropriate to adjust the environmental factors (stay in the fresh air), higher intake of fluids and omega-3 fatty acids to improve the quality of the tears. In the operation, the cloudy lens is removed from the eye and replaced with an artificial lens. 73/5000 The operation is performed under local anesthetic eye anesthetic drops.
In our eye center we perform cataract surgery with the most modern and safest phacoemulsification device of today – CENTURION VISION SYSTEM, which divides the lens into small parts and sucks them. The new, clear, artificial (acrylate) lens is then permanently implanted in the eye. This replaces the dioptric strength of the original cloudy lens, even removing the original diopters in the patient (myopia or sightedness). The patient can also choose to implant a special multifocal lens, which will improve both distance and close vision and therefore no longer need glasses. In our eye centre, we implant yellow intraocular lenses, which, thanks to the yellow filter, protect the retina of the eye before the impact of the harmful blue part of the light spectrum.
The actual technique of operation is now very gentle, carried out through a very small incision (2,2 mm), which reduces the amount of post-operative complications, accelerates vision recovery and shortens the length of performance. After surgery, the vision is restored very quickly, usually the next day after the operation. In some cases, vision may be temporarily blurred after surgery, and will be clarified within a few days. The stabilization of vision occurs mostly about 4 weeks after surgery. After this time it is possible to prescribe new glasses (in patients who have not been implanted with a multifocal lens to see all distances without glasses).
In addition to cataracts, there is also so-called. Secondary cataract that occurs after several years from cataract surgery. This is the clouding of the casing in which the artificial lens is inserted. The vision gets worse, the patient sees it as though through the foil. However, the solution is very fast and consists of a laser operation, when a special YAG laser creates a hole in the cloudy lentil and the patient once again sees it as before. After this procedure, the status is permanent and will never be repeated again.
It is a visual impairment caused by the dying of the optic nerve. Although the factors involved are several, e.g. Higher age, genetic factors (incidence of glaucoma in the family), smoking, diabetes, eye injury, eye refractions (myopia, hyperopia), medicines (cortocosteroids), low blood pressure (called cold limb syndrome), crucial importance is attributed to high pressure. This arises as a result of the imbalance between permanent fluid formation in the eye and its ability to drain away from the eye. Usually the problem is just in the reduced flow of eye fluid (ventricular moku) from the eye to the arteries, the eye pressure rises and leads to a malfunction of the retinal nerve cells that begin to die. Glaucoma is a insidious disease that is usually symptom-free, does not hurt and the patient is therefore long not to know at all (open-angle glaucoma). The exception is the so-called. Narrow-angle glaucoma, which may show pain in the eye and the head often associated with vomiting – called Glaucoma. It is more common for eye-optic eyes for their anatomical predisposition. It requires urgent treatment, otherwise it may end up by blinding the eye within 24 hours. The prerequisite for detection of glaucoma is its diagnosis in preventive eye examinations. The most sensitive examination in detecting glaucoma is the OCT examination (Optical coherence tomography), which we also use in our eye clinic. By this examination, the laser beam measures the thickness of the retinal nerve fibers in μm (when the green stopper decreases their thickness) and the result is compared to normal value of healthy people. The device maps the retina and creates incisions showing its structure, based on which diagnosis is also made for other retinal diseases (in particular, the disease of the yellow spots – the macula). This examination can detect glaucoma very soon, even before permanent visual impairment occurs in the form of blackout in the visual field with loss of peripheral vision, which gradually can lead to blindness without treatment. Glaucoma cannot be completely cured, but its treatment can prevent its progression. Treatment is aimed at reducing eye pressure, especially ocular drops that reduce eye fluid formation or improve its drain from the eye, or a combination thereof. In more serious conditions, when conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment is possible. An untreated green stopper leads to blindness, therefore it is important not to neglect a preventive eye examination, especially in middle-aged people with the incidence of glaucoma in the family, possibly with other risk factors.
Age-dependent degeneration of yellow spots (macula) – a disease affecting the centre of the retina mostly of both eyes. We recognize two forms of macular degeneration: the so-called suchú (atrofickú) formu a tzv. Moist (exudative) Form. In dry form there is a dying of light sensitive cells (photoreceptors) and cells of the pigmented epithelium in the macule. It represents about 90 cases of age-related macular degeneration, impaired vision is slow and poor. Conversely, a dramatic progression with sudden deterioration of visual acuity has a damp form of disease, when new, menisative vessels under the retina of the macula occur. These blood vessels are of poor quality, through their wall seeping the fluid and causing swelling of the macula or bursting and causing the yellow spots to mask. The damp form represents about 10 cases of age-related degeneration of yellow spots. As the light is in the process of seeing the focus is just to the place of the sharpest vision to which the macula is, because it has the highest density of photortors, this is due to the quality of central visual acuity. One cannot discern details when reading, indistinguishable faces, colors, even perceives in the middle of his vision a dark frecto. However, peripheral vision remains intact. Both forms of degeneration are more likely to occur with an increasing age, which is a major risk factor. Other risk factors include genetic burden, female sex (more commonly found in women), the light color of the iris of the eye (the disease is more common in modrookies), smoking, cardiovascular disease and poor biogovernance. Degeneration of the macula belongs, unfortunately, to diseases that cannot be completely cured, success is also a stabilisation of the disease. Although the effective treatment of dry forms of degeneration of yellow spots does not exist, dietary supplements containing lutein, zeaxanine, zinc and antioxidants, e.g., are recommended. Vitamin E. Damp form, conversely we can at least stop the repeated application of antigrowth (anti-VEGF) injections directly into the eye. A better prognosis is to be used in patients where treatment is initiated in a timely manner, prior to the onset of scar changes in the macule which are no longer affected. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the disease early at regular examinations of the ocular background and confirm THE OCT by examination.
Diabetic Retinopathy – is one of the ocular complications of diabetes when there is damage to the fine blood vessels of the retina. Their closures and dilation are formed, leading to the emergence of ischaemic, uncruel retinal zones and fluid leakage between the layers of the retina. In the most difficult cases, the substrate of the ischemia is created by new, menalvaluable blood vessels, which often burst, resulting in a masking into the inside of the eye with sudden loss of vision. Regular control of the ocular background is important, at least once a year, in order to be able to intervene in time with laser therapy and to avoid demanding surgery.
Retinal Detachment-is formed by separation of the retina from its underlying layer-pigment epithelium, which is important for the metabolism of the retina (it should be facilitated by its function to be compared to the function of the liver for humans). The retina may peel off as a result of eye injury, inflammatory diseases and tumors in the ocular background, risk factors are also degeneration of the retinal periphery and myopia. At first it is manifested by flashes and mups in front of the eye, later a blackout in some part of the field of vision arises. This condition requires an operating solution, otherwise after a few weeks leads to permanent blindness.
We perform the upper eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty), we address disorders of the eyelids (Ectropion, Entropium), and operation of the barley.
For Blefaroplasty Removes excess, sheepskin of the upper eyelids, possibly even fat cams. The need for such correction rises with the advancing age for loss of the skin of the eyelids, but the role may also play inheritance or allergies. In addition to aesthetic problems, excess skin also causes a feeling of heaviness and fatigue, even in the most difficult cases, the narrowing of the visual field. The operation is carried out in local anaesthesia, the patient leaves home with a compression bandage on the eyes, which is removed after 4 hours. Cold compresses are attached 24-48 hours after operation. Stitches are removed on 6.-7. The post-operative day, while the swelling and bruises of the eyelids persist for about 2-3 weeks. The patient after blefaroplasty should not be about 2 months of exposure to sunlight for the risk of darked an operative scar. Immediately after the operation, the scar is first flusbled, but gradually pale and after 2-3 months is almost invisible.
Entropium je vyvrátenie okraja očného viečka aj s riasami smerom k oku, čo spôsobuje chronické dráždenie spojovky a rohovky oka. Ektropium je naopak vyvrátenie okraja dolného viečka od oka, čím je narušená prirodzená funkcia viečka rozotierať slzy po povrchu oka. This condition leads to eye irritation and tear. Both ecropium and entropium occur mainly in the elderly and in patients with chronic eyelid inflammation.
The pategium is the outgrowth of the coarse, pink conjunctival membrane into the cornea of the eye. It has a triangular shape, contains a number of vessels and occurs mainly in the inner corner of the eye. It is manifested by the redness of the inner corner, and in the more advanced condition also by impaired vision for the induction of astigmatism, because the growth of pegia by its tension deforms the cornea. Peculium is mainly found in people exposed to UV radiation or in a dusty environment. The operation consists in removing it and repairing the defect using the technique of auto-transplantation of the conjunctiva, thus reducing the likelihood of recurrence, which is quite frequent on Friday.
Barley (chalaseon) is an eyelid disease that results in the formation of a painful lump in the eyelid. It is caused by clogging, inflammation and bacterial infection of the sebaceous gland of the eyelid, which is contributed to by staying in a dusty environment, drafts and reduced immunity. It is treated with antibiotic eye drops and ointments;